Air Traffic Agreements

The eighth unofficial freedom is the right to transport passengers or cargo between two or more points in a foreign country and is also called cabotage. [6]:31 Outside Europe, this is extremely rare. The most important example is the European Union, where such rights exist among all its Member States. The Internal Aviation Market (SAM) was established in 1996 between Australia and New Zealand; the 2001 Protocol to the Multilateral Agreement on the Liberalization of International Air Transport (MALIAT) between Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore; United Airlines` Island Hopper route from Guam to Honolulu can carry passengers within the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands, although the countries involved are closely linked to the United States. In general, these rights have only been granted when the national air network is very underdeveloped. A remarkable example was the authority of Pan Ams, from the 1950s to the 1980s between Frankfurt and West Berlin, although political circumstances, not the state of the national air network, dictated it – only the allied airlines of France, the United Kingdom and the United States had the right to route air traffic between West Germany and the legally separate and separate area of West Berlin until 1990. [25] In 2005, the United Kingdom and New Zealand entered into an agreement granting unlimited coasting rights. [26] Given the distance between the two countries, the agreement can be seen as an expression of a political principle rather than as the expectation that those rights will be invoked in the near future. Similarly, in 1999, New Zealand exchanged eighth freedom rights with Ireland.

[27] The 1952 bilateral air services agreement between Japan and the United States was considered particularly controversial because of the granting of unlimited fifth-freedom traffic rights to designated U.S. air carriers departing from the Asia-Pacific region west of Japan. In the early 1990s, for example, the Japanese government`s refusal to allow flights on the New York City-Osaka-Sydney route sparked protests from U.S. management and airlines seeking proof of the route. The Japanese government responded that only about 10% of the traffic in the Japan-Australia sector was the third and fourth freedom traffic to and from the United States, while the bilateral agreement specified that the main justification for unlimited fifth freedom traffic was to fill aircraft carrying a large portion of U.S. or U.S. traffic under these rights. Japan had maintained many unused rights of the Fifth Freedom beyond the United States. However, due to the increased operating costs of Japanese airlines and geographic circumstances, they were considered less valuable than the fifth freedom enjoyed by U.S. carriers over Japan. Japan serves as a useful gateway to Asia for North American travellers. The United States asserted that Japan`s favourable geographical location and the transportation of its flag airlines, with a considerable volume of six transit traffic through gateway cities in Japan, had helped to improve the competitive conditions.

In 1995, the air transport agreement was updated by liberalizing Japanese airlines` access to U.S. destinations, while restrictions were imposed on U.S. carriers. [20]:19-24 One of the first ATAs after World War II was the Bermuda Agreement, signed in 1946 by Great Britain and the United States. The characteristics of this agreement have become models for the thousands of agreements that were to follow, although in recent decades some of the traditional clauses of these agreements have been amended (or „liberalized“) in accordance with the „open skies“ policy of some governments, particularly the United States. [2] Traffic from sixth freedom has always been widespread in Asia, where Southeast Asian airlines, such as Thai Airways and Singapore Airlines, traffic on the Kangaroo route between Europe and Australia and Japanese airlines between the A